Background: Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) may also have a common, bacterial inflammatory condition affecting the gums (periodontitis). The effects of periodontitis are not limited to the mouth but spread to other sites in the body via bleeding gums during eating, talking or brushing. Periodontitis is easily treatable using a mix of professional cleaning by a dentist or hygienist and improved homecare on the part of the patient. In an ongoing study being carried out in Birmingham, we have found that periodontitis might have a deleterious effect on the general health of patients with CKD. Given that periodontitis is readily treatable and that the treatment of periodontitis may have a beneficial effect on patients, this pilot study was designed to assess the practicality of conducting a largerscale trial to investigate the effect of treating periodontitis on the general health of patients with CKD. Patients with CKD and periodontitis who wish to participate in this study will be randomly divided into two groups (50 patients in each). One group will receive intensive treatment for their periodontitis at the Birmingham dental hospital. The effects of this treatment on the general health of patients with CKD will be seen by comparing these patients to patients randomly assigned to the other group who receive this intensive treatment but at a delay of 12 months. All patients will be followed up for 18 months. The baseline health characteristics as well as response to treatment in this group will be compared to systemically healthy patients with and without periodontitis (20 in each group).